Programming Language Families

Note that the precise distinctions between a Programming Language, a Programming Language Family, and an Automaton are debatable, and entries may be categorized somewhat arbitrarily.

by Cat's Eye Technologies

  • Funge-98 (Sep 11, 1998)

    Funge-98 is a family of programming languages designed as the successor to Befunge-93. It generalizes Befunge-93's two-dimensional nature somewhat, defining languages in one dimension (Unefunge-98), two dimensions (Befunge-98), and three dimensions (Trefunge-98), and suggests possibilities for other dimensions and topologies (but does not specify exactly how they look or would behave.) It also makes the playfield unbounded, allowing the language to be Turing-complete, and tries to define mechanisms for interacting with the operating system and engaging extensions to the language.

by Our Valued Partners

  • 1L

    1L is a family of two-dimensional esolangs which have "only one" instruction.

  • Assembly

    Refers to many kind of languages which compile ("assemble") to native code. Assembler syntax often has the property that it is not too hard to write a program in assembly to parse it, for bootstrapping purposes.


    Popularized by the rash of 8-bit home microcomputers in the 80's, BASIC stands for "Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code."